Review: Cryptosporicidal Activity of Plant Extracts Against Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis 
Alain Mae Almorad, Richard Justine Angele, Elshiva Victoria Beltran, Merille Ugali, Nathaniel Sept Valles, Zenaida D. Los Banos, Tooba Mahboo, Sahapat Barusrux, Veeranoot Nissapatorn

Cryptosporidium spp., an obligate epicellular coccidian that causes cryptosporidiosis, is a neglected parasite. There are 26 known species of Cryptosporidium spp. as recognized by host specificity, morphology, and molecular biology studies but only two of them infect humans - Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. This review evaluates the cryptosporicidal effects of plant extracts against C. parvum and C. hominis. Established studies showed that 8 plants have shown potential cryptosporicidal effects; blueberry with its polyphenolic compounds, cinnamon with its phenolic compounds and onion with its flavonoids and sulfide compounds, garlic with its allicin, mango with its mangiferin, olive pomace with its oleuropein, pomegranate with its polyphenols and tannins, and oregano with its carvacrol. Since the only approved medicine against Cryptosporidium spp. is Nitazoxanide, these promising results may allow us to discover novel drug compounds against Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum and C. hominis. Furthermore, the results are still suggested for further studies and improvement in order to enhance the knowledge we have gathered of the bioactive compounds of the said plants against these pathogenic species of parasite.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium; cryptosporidiosis; neglected parasite; cryptosporicidal effects