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Pharmacognostical, Physico-chemical and Phytochemical Evaluation for Standardization of Three Piper species Used in Ayurvedic Medicine
Jeevani Dahanayake, Pathirage Kamal Perera, Priyadarshani Galappatthb, Pushpa Fernando, Menuka Arawwawala

Abstract
The plant species of the family Piperaceae contain valuable natural compounds. Among the genera of Piperaceae family the Piper is an important genus which consists of 700 plant species growing in the different parts of the world. Many plants of this piper genus are the essential medicinal plants used in various traditional systems of medicine. Among those plants fruits of Piper nigrum L., fruits and root of Piper longum L. and stems and roots of Piper retrofractum Vahl are commonly used in the Sri Lankan traditional system and Ayurveda system of medicine. Piper species have demonstrated strong efficacy against both malignant and non-malignant diseases. Piperine is a valuable alkaloid found in the fruits and roots of P. longum (long pepper), P. nigrum (black pepper) and stems of P. retrofractum. The main objective of this study was to establish the physico-chemical, phytochemical and pharmacognostical profiles of P. longum, P. nigrum and P. retrofractum in order to develop standard parameters. Standardization parameters such as ash values, extractive values, heavy metals and qualitative phytochemical analysis were performed. Analysis of TLC and HPTLC fingerprint patterns of methanolic extract of 3 plants were also done. The results of ash and extractable values were comparable with the results in Ayurveda pharmacopeia of India. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavanoids, terpinoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids. Heavy metal concentrations were found to be within the limits. Results of these physico-chemical parameters, phytochemical, macroscopic and microscopic analysis can be used to assess the quality and detection of any adulteration for P. nigrum, P. longum and P. retrofractum.

Keywords: Standardization, Pharmacognosy, Physico-chemical, Phytochemicals