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Evaluation of developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of Quercus infectoria galls (Manjakani) aqueous extract in Sprague Dawley rats
M.K. Nurul Ajilaha, A. Hasmahb, M.F Wan Ezumia

Abstract
Quercus infectoria galls (QIG) or locally known in Malaysia as manjakani is commonly used by reproductive-age women to restore uterine elasticity and increase sexual pleasure but it is not consumed during pregnancy and early confinement period. However, scientific reports about to its possible effects particularly on the progression of developing embryo are very limited. Thus, the present study was conducted to provide evidence on the potential effects of QIG aqueous extract on embryonic development including teratogenicity in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats. QIG extract at the doses of 0 (control), 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day were orally administered to 30 experimental rats during pre-mating, mating and up to gestation periods of day 16 while sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy. Results obtained revealed that there were no substantial effects on the number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, percentages of pre-implantation loss and postimplantation death, gravid uterine weight, number of life fetuses and fetal body weight in all experimental animals. Similarly, no correlation and distinguishable diversities of fetal sex ratio were observed among all groups. Gross examination of external and internal organs of fetuses did not indicate evidence of QIG-related alterations as all fetuses displayed normal physical appearances. These findings suggest that the aqueous extracts of QIG of up to 1000 mg/kg/day exerted no developmental toxicity or teratogenic effect in rats.

Keywords: Developmental toxicity; Quercus infectoria; Manjakani; Teratogenicity