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Ethnobotanical uses of locally available plants for respiratory diseases by fifteen ethnic groups of Nepal: A review
Bishnu Kandel, Bigyan Sen Thakuri, Susmita Paudel, Sabina Sigdel, Prekshya Khanal, Kabita Sapkota, Bipana Bhusal, Deepa Paudel, Sandip Mahara, Shila Gurung, Samrat Ghimire, Prajwol Subedi, Pratik Sapkota, Pravesh Chandra Ghimire, Deepak Gautam

Abstract
Nepal, a mountainous country having diversified topographic and climatic conditions, gives rise to a wide range of flora and fauna. Nepal, more than 2300 plant species are traditionally used by people belonging to different ethnic groups to cure various diseases. 126 ethnic groups, the study analyzes the ethnobotanical use of 15 ethnic groups from 29 districts including a total of 119 species belonging to 61 families. This study helps in the analysis of indigenous knowledge of plants used in the treatment of respiratory disorders by different ethnic groups of Nepal. Relevant information related to different ethnic groups and ethnobotanical uses was taken from secondary sources such as articles, newspapers, and various national and international portals. Among those 119 species, the composition of herbs, trees, shrubs, climber, and grasses were 48%, 27%, 20%, 4%, and 1% respectively, and frequently used plant part is root. These were mainly used in the treatment of respiratory diseases like pneumonia and asthma. More plant species were used to cure Asthma than Pneumonia. At present, some species are under serious threat due to habitat destruction and overexploitation indicating the urgent need for documentation and conservation of the useful plants and their habitats. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management, and development of modern techniques to maximize their use.

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Ethnic communities, Pneumonia, Asthma, Medicinal plants