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Phytochemical and Biological study on leaves extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.
Bibek Sigdel, Dharma Prasad Khanal , Bishwo Raj Dhungana, Dikshita Lama

Abstract
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L is well known medicinal plant which is widely used in Ayurveda treatments due to the various pharmacological actions such as anti-arthritic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelmintic, antileishmanial, antiviral, central nerve system (CNS) depressant activities. The objective of this study was to perform phytochemical screening, gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis, total flavonoid and phenolic contents, in-vitro antioxidant activity and in-vivo hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic leaf extract obtained from Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. The leaf extract was prepared by macerating dried leaves and crude extract was subjected for qualitative phytochemical analysis. The quantitative analysis was performed on GC-MS analysis of leaf extract, determination of total phenolic content (TPC) and the flavonoid content (TFC).. Antioxidant activity was determined by ferric reducing power assay (FRPA) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In-vivo hepatoprotective activity was determined in paracetamol induced liver toxicity in Wistar Albino rats following standard protocol. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of extract showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids and absence of anthraquinone glycosides. The results of GC-MS analysis of extract revealed the presence of palmitic acid, nonanoic acid, and phytol as main compounds. The phenolic content (TPC) and the flavonoid content (TFC) were found in indicative amount. In the reducing power assay, moieties present in extract with reducing power showed that they are electron donors and can reduce the oxidized intermediates. Maximum percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals by the extract was about 53% at 25 ug/ml and the IC50 value of extract was found to be 15.60 μg/mL. It showed decent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats and was comparable with standard silymarin. The ethanolic extract of leaves are rich with many phytochemicals and showed hepatoprotective action and was comparable with standard. Therefore, it can be concluded that plant Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L may be a promising source for the search of hepatoprotective agent.

Keywords: Hepatotoxicty, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, paracetamol, hepatoprotective action