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Preliminary phytochemicals, non-enzymatic in-vitro antioxidant, microbicides, anti-ulcerogenic and toxicological properties of Emilia coccinea
MacDonald Idu, Charles O. Agbonogieva, Benjamin O. Gabriel

Abstract
Emilia coccinea is a shrub herb that belongs to the family Compositae (Asteraceae). This study evaluates the preliminary phytochemicals, in-vitro antioxidant, anti-ulcerogenic, microbicides, and toxicological properties of E. coccinea ethylacetate extract. Fresh leaf of E. coccinea was gotten, rinsed, shade dried, powdered, and processed into ethyl acetate extract. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, 1, 1 Diphenyl -2-Picrylhydrazine (DPPH) antioxidant property and the antimicrobial effect carried out via standard method. Adults Wistar rats weighing 180-220 were acclimatized and allotted into groups of five (n=5) (twenty-five rats) such as ulcer control, 10 mg/kg cimetidine, and graded doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of ethyl acetate extract were evaluated. A toxicological study was evaluated. The preliminary phytochemicals present include; phenol (107.46 mg), saponins (10.42 mg), alkaloids (184.30 mg), cardiac glycosides (83.82 mg), and anthraquinone (124.94 mg). The in-vitro antioxidant assay exhibited scavenging property against DPPH radicals when compared with ascorbate. The microbicide effect of E. coccinea ethyl acetate extract at graded concentration showed inhibitory action against Escherichia coliHelicobacter pylori's, and Salmonella typhi. Ulcerative defect in the mucosal lining of the rats'' stomach was pre-treated with ethyl acetate crude extract, which showed a significant decrease in ulcer count and ulcer index with a considerable increase in ulcer percentage inhibition compared to ulcer control and 10 mg/kg cimetidine. At <5000 mg/kg of the acute study showed no dead or adverse effect. Haemato-pathological and histopathological analysis of the extract displayed no significant difference with the normal architecture of the organs compared with the control. In conclusion, further studies will be required for compound isolation.

Keywords: Preliminary Phytochemicals, non-enzymatic in-vitro antioxidant, Antiulcerogenic, Microbicides, toxicological, Emilia coccinea