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Development of novel chlorhexidine gluconate hand scrub with Aloe vera and in-vitro antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi
Shanika Karunanayaka, Sujeewa Hettihewa, Lilani Karunanayake, Dharshan Silva

Abstract
Healthcare professionals are constantly challenged by the need to practice good hand hygiene to alleviate nosocomial infections whilst protect the skin from irritants. This study aimed to develop and evaluate of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate hand scrub (CGHS) against selected pathogens. The CGHS was prepared by mixing chlorhexidine gluconate and Aloe vera and the stability was studied for 90 days at room temperature. The in-vitro test was performed against selected microbes [Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC 12384), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 23355), Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC 19606), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 70603), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 12453), Salmonella Typhi (clinical isolates), Shigella sonnei (clinical isolates)] to evaluate in-vitro antimicrobial efficacy followed by in-vivo antimicrobial efficacy test using fingertip method. The formulation was found to be homogenous, liquid, and reddish with a pleasant odour. The mean values of inhibition zones for CGHS were 23.10±1.00, 21.67±0.58, 20.00±1.00, 22.67±0.58, 17.67±0.58, 25.00±1.00, 23.50±0.71, 18.00±1.00, 34.33±0.58, 23.67±0.58, 24.33±0.58, and 27.33±0.58 mm against E. coli, E. cloacae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Salmonella Typhi, S. sonnei, P. mirabillis, C. albicans, S. pyogenes, E. faecium and S. aureus, respectively. Zero values of inhibition zone were obtained for distilled water (negative control) while the market product (positive control) showed the lower zones of inhibition against E. cloacae, Salmonella Typhi, C. albicans, S. pyogenes, E. faecium, and S. aureus. The formulated CGHS has promising antifungal and antibacterial efficacy against the tested pathogens and the invivo test was confirmed the skin compatibility of the formulation.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Antifungal; Chlorhexidine; Hand scrub