Phytochemical profiling, GC-MS characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Morus alba L. leaves extract
Sudishna Khanal, Dharma Prasad Khanal, Paramananda Bikram Shahi

Abstract
For centuries natural herbs have been used for the prevention and cure of the disease. The plant consists of various secondary metabolites that can show action. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Morus alba Lin leaf extract. GC-MS analysis was further done to validate the qualitative data. Total phenolic content was evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteu method and total flavonoid content by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Antioxidant was carried out by FRAP and DPPH assay. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by borehole method using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and carbohydrates. Ethanolic extract showed the phenolic content to be 45.77 mg GAE/g while the flavonoid content was determined to be 95.4 mg/g QE. GC-MS showed the presence of 22 compounds in which important molecules were linolenic acid, cinnamic acid, and heptanoic acid. The IC50 value of the extract was found to be 46.0 μg/mL. The plant showed better activity against Staphylococcus aureus which is a grampositive microorganism comparatively. The findings of this investigation supported the presence of phytochemicals and bioactive substances in M. alba that may be beneficial to 
health. 

Keywords: antimicrobial, DPPH, GC-MS, Morus alba L, reducing power