Acute toxicity of the extracts of some medicinal plants in Nigerian ethno-botanicals using broiler chicken model
Joseph Olowo Arogbodo, Isaac Abayomi Adebayo, Innocent Bamidele Osho


Abstract
Therapeutic and nutraceutical application of medicinal plants in animal production are becoming very popular in the recent time. Many medicinal plants were reported to have shown adverse effects due to their toxicity, which underscores the necessity of their acute toxicity determination prior to the approval of their usage. This study examined the acute toxicity (LD50) of four medicinal plants (Solanum erianthum D. Don., Petiveria alliacea L., Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze, and Hoslundia opposita Vahl) in Nigerian ethno-botanicals in broilers using standard procedure. Sixty eight (68) three weeks old broilers were divided into two groups of forty eight (48) and twenty (20) for the first and second phase of the study respectively. Ethanolic extracts were administered at 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg during the first stage and 1,000, 1,600, 2,900, and 5,000 mg/kg at the second stage of the experiment. There were no observable hazardous or debilitating effects, injuries or deaths caused by the extracts, even at 5,000 mg/kg to the experimental birds. By deductive inference, the LD50 of the extracts was above 5000 mg/kg. It was concluded that the extracts were practically non-toxic by classification of LD50, based on dose range. Further studies on sub-chronic and chronic toxicity effects of the test plants on other species of animals were recommended. Their histopathological effects can thenceforth be adequately assessed on selected vital organs.

Keywords: Acute toxicity, medicinal plants, leaf extracts, broiler chickens